Asian Journal of Paleopathology Vol.6, 25–31, 2024
受付日:2023 年12 月29 日
受理日:2024 年3 月7 日
DOI: 10.32247/ajp2024.6.05

総説論文 Review
Reconstructing human-animal relations from archaeozoology: looking back on my research in half a century

Mikiko Abe

阪平野は河内湾であった。縄文時代は河内湾の沿岸に位置した東大阪市鬼虎川遺跡からは大型や小型のクジラ類ならびに海産の魚類の出土がみられた。縄文と弥生の両時代に河内湾から河内潟に変遷する沿岸に位置した森ノ宮遺跡はこの気候変化に伴い貝塚を構成する貝の種類ならびに魚種に変化がみられた。次に,奈良盆地中央部に位置する弥生時代の唐古・鍵遺跡では,弥生時代中期には家畜種のニワトリやヤヨイブタ,大陸由来と考えられる大形のイエネズミなどが出土し,交易が盛んであったことを示唆する。古墳時代になると,四条畷市の蔀屋北遺跡では,少なくとも12 体分のウマの骨が出土しており,河内地方で牧が作られ,ウマの飼育や繁殖が盛んであったことが示唆される。


 Animal and plant remains excavated from archaeological sites played an important role on the reconstruction of paleoenvironment and human living conditions. The beginning of archaeozoology in Japan dated back to Nobuo Naora who published “On wolves in Japan”. The targets of archaeozoology were hunted animals and fish alone in the dawning era. Archaeozoologists did not pay attention to other animal bones because of the lack of animal bone collections used for the diagnoses of archaeological bones. I have made bone collections of birds and mammals and have developed research environments during half a century. On the based on these animal bone collections, I observed animal bones from archaeological remains in the Kinki District in Japan and tried to reconstruct paleoenvironments and human-animal relationships. I introduced a few precedent studies on animal-human relationships. Firstly, the Kitoragawa site (Higashiosaka, Osaka) located on the seashore of the Kawachi Bay in the Holocene glacial retreat yielded large and small whales and ocean fish in the Jomon Period. On the other hands, the Morinomiya site located in the retreated coast of the Kawachi Lagoon in the Yayoi Period yielded different fish and shell remains from the Kitoragawa site, which was possibly reflected by the climate change. Secondly, the Karako-kagi site in the central area in the Nara Basin yielded not only domesticated chickens but also pigs and rodents from the Asia Continet in the middle Yayoi Period, which showed the active trading. The thirdly, the Shitomiya-kita site (Shijonawate, Osaka) in the Kofun Period yielded horse bones whose number of individuals is 12. It implies the presence of horse breedings in the grazing land in the Kawachi area.

Key words: Paleoenvironment, archaeozoology, Kinki District