Asian Journal of Paleopathology Vol.6, 7–15, 2024
Received: February 24, 2024
Accepted: March 18, 2024
DOI: 10.32247/ajp2024.6.03

Case Study
A rare case of both bone forearm fracture with a 90° angulation of the radius from the North Shenjiaqiao cemetery of the Eastern Zhou Dynasty Warring States Period, Xi’an, China (475–221 BCE)

Yawei Zhou, Huiying Liu, Xiangyu Zhang, Yanpeng Wang, Qian Wang

 In this study, we report a rare case of a forearm deformity in an adult individual from the North Shenjiaqiao cemetery, Xi’an, of the Warring States Period of ancient China (475–221 BCE). The bones of the upper limb skeleton were examined using visual observation with the aid of high definition 2D images and X-rays, and measurements. Results demonstrated that the right radius was bent at nearly a 90° angle while the right ulna was small, discontinuous, and atrophic; the humerus and hand bones on the right side were slenderer than the left side. Differential diagnosis suggests that the observed limb anomaly and atrophy was most likely results of a both bone forearm fracture and the impairment of the right arm led to disuse atrophy of the whole right arm. It is not possible to determine the exact cause of the injury. The individual lived a long time after the injury. The case of disability demonstrated the lack or failure of medical treatment in an individual, but certain level of family support and care in ancient times.

Key words
Both bone forearm fracture, greenstick fracture, angulated fracture, malunion, impairment