Asian Journal of Paleopathology Vol.4
Received: November 21, 2021
Accepted: January 24, 2022
DOI: 10.32247/ajp2022.4.2

Case Study
A possible case of secondary bone cancer in human remains from the medieval period (XII-XV AD) of Mongolia

Batsuren Byambadorj, Myagmar Erdene, Samdantsoodol Orgilbayar, Artur V. Kharinsky

 We analyzed the pathological changes and radiographic imaging of multiple osteoblastic and osteolytic lesions identified in the skull, vertebra, ribs, and pelvic bones of an individual from the medieval period, also known as the ‘Mongol Empire period’ (XII-XIV AD) of Mongolia. Sunburst and mossy periosteal patterns were noted on the visceral surfaces of the left 2nd, 3rd and 5th, and right 3rd through 7th ribs, and in the spinal cord, as well on the bilateral iliac fossae in this human skeleton. Diffuse osteolytic lesions were also observed on the outer surfaces of the affected bones. Radiographic images showed cortical bone thickening with periosteal reaction on the surface and osteosclerotic changes in the cancellous bone. Macroscopic observations of the skeleton, X-ray imaging, and comparative studies of different bone-alteration cases and chronic diseases suggest the pathology observed in this skeleton to be due to bone cancer, likely secondary to prostate cancer. This is the first well-identified case of metastatic bone cancer among the ancient population of Mongolia.

Key words
Medieval period of Mongolia, secondary bone cancer, osteoblast, osteolytic lesions, prostate cancer, Zvvn Hyariin Denj-1