Asian Journal of Paleopathology Vol.1, 40–54, 2017
Received: February 17, 2017
Accepted: March 13, 2017
DOI: 10.32247/ajp2017.1.6

A preliminary analysis of the paleopathological features of the ancient dog (no.1) from Suwada area No.6 site, Chiba Prefecture in Japan

山崎 京美
Kyomi Yamazaki

 千葉県市川市に所在する須和田遺跡は「須和田式土器」の標識遺跡として著名であり,縄文時代前期や,弥生時代から平安時代まで長期に営まれた遺跡である.昭和59 年に実施された第6地点からは,奈良時代(8世紀後半)に属する大形の3号土坑から多量の人工遺物とともに,4枚の貝層の間からイヌ11 個体,ウシ3 個体,ウマ2 個体が検出された.また,遺体の詳細な形態学的分析により,イヌ11 個体は一つの家族集団を形成すること,中大から大形サイズの個体を含むこと,骨格に異常が多いのは閉鎖的集団内での飼育に起因する可能性があることが指摘された(金子1992a).本例は,古代犬の解明を進める上で重要な問題を提起する好資料である.そこで,本稿では須和田遺跡イヌ遺体の再評価を目的として,古病理痕の顕著な1号イヌ遺体を対象に,肉眼および写真画像判断から外傷や病気に関する予察的分析を行った.その結果,1号イヌは日本の遺跡出土犬の中で病変が著しく多く,咬耗の異常や骨折には人為的影響を受けている可能性が示唆された.


 The Suwada site in Ichikawa City, Chiba Prefecture is renowned as a landmark archaeological site of Suwada-style pottery, and was inhabited for a long period, from the early Jomon to the Heian period. An excavation conducted in 1984 in Area No.6 uncovered the remains of 11 dogs, 3 cattles, and 2 horses from four shell layers in addition to a large quantity of artifacts from the latter half of the 8th century from Large Pit No. 3. A detailed morphological analysis of dog remains had indicated that the 11 skeletons formed a single-family group, that they include medium and large-sized dogs, and that a large number of abnormalities in the skeletons is a result of inbreeding (Kaneko 1992a). These dogs are valuable resource that elicits important questions in addition to furthering our understanding of dogs in ancient times. Therefore, I conducted a preliminary analysis of the traumatic lesions and diseases found on the skeleton of Dog No. 1 that had remarkable paleopathological signs using simple observation and photographic imaging techniques with the aim of re-evaluating the dog remains from the Suwada site. The results suggest that this dog is the individual which there are remarkably many diseases in prehistoric and historic dogs in Japan, and also suggest that there is a high possibility of human influence on the occlusal wearing and fractures found on Dog No. 1.

Key words
Zooarchaeology, Nara period, Suwada No.6 site, traumatic lesions, abnormal wear, benign tumor